Estilo indirecto

Reported speech statements

Direct speech - Reported speech

´I love the hotel.´

She said that she loved the hotel.

´We´re having a wonderful time.´

He said that they were having a wonderful time.

´I worked for ten hours.´

He said he´d worked for ten hours.

´You´ve never written to me.´

She said he´d never written to her.

´I´ll see you soon.´

He said he´d see her soon.
* Si el reporting verb (por ejemplo said o told) está en pasado, el verbo en estilo directo retrocede un tiempo verbal al pasar a estilo indirecto.

present simple - past simple

present simple - past continuous

past simple - past perfect simple

present perfect simple - past perfect simple

will - would

can - could

* Los verbos modales should, could, would, might y ought to no cambian al pasar a estilo indirecto.

´We might come.´

She said that they might come.

´I could be there at 8.00.´

He said he could be there by 8.00.

* Los pronombres y adjectives posesivos sí cambian.

´I´m watching you.´

He said that he was watching him.

´We´ve got you a surprise.´

She said that they had got him a surprise.

´I´ve forgotten my keys.´

He said that he had forgotten his keys.

Time expressions in reported speech

Las expressions de tiempo también cambian al pasar a estilo indireco.

this = that

these = those

now = then

next week = the following week

today = that day

tomorrow = the next day

yesterday = the day before

last week = the week before

Reported speech: Questions and commands

Direct questions - Reported questions

´What time is your train?´

She asked what the time his train was.

´Why are you laughing?´

He asked why she was laughing.

* En las oraciones interrogativas en estilo directo el orden es verbo + sujeto.

* En las oraciones interogativas en estilo indirecto el orden es sujeto + verbo. No se utiliza signo de interrogación.

He asked how old she was.

She asked where the hotel was.

* Si la pregunta en estilo directo no lleva particular interrogative, al pasar a estilo indirect se utiliza if o whether.

´Are you Spanish?´

He asked if / whether we were Spanish.

Reported Commands

Direct commands - Reported commands

´Be quiet!´

He told them to be quiet.

´Put it out!´

She told him to put it out.

* En las órdenes en estilo directo se utilize el imperative.

* Para pasar una orden a estilo indirecto, se utiliza la siguiente construcción:

sujeto + verbo + objeto + infinitivo con to

She told them to sit down.

He told her to close ther window.

* Para pasar un orden negativa a estilo indirecto, se utiliza not delante del infinitivo.

La construcción es la siguiente: sujeto + verbo + objeto + not + infinitivo con to

´Don´t forget your wallet.´ ´She told him not to forget his wallet.´

* Otros reporting verbs que se utilizan para expresar órdenes son:

advise, encourage, invite, persuade, remind, warn.

Reported speech: Suggestions

Direct suggestions - Reported suggestions

´Shall we go for a walk?´

He suggested that they went for a walk.

´Why don´t we go out tonight?´

She suggested that they went out that night.

Para las sugerencias en estilo indirect se utiliza suggest como reporting verb.

A. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1) ´I´m starving! I haven´t had any breakfast.´

Thomas said that he …………………………………………. (starve) and that he ……………………………. (not have) any breakfast.

2) ´I´m feeling a bit hungry too.´

Alexa said that she …………………………… (feel) a bit hungry as well.

3) ´We can order breakfast from McDonalds if you want.´

Thomas said that they …………………… (can) order breakfast from McDonalds if they wanted.

4) ´We ordered breakfast from them last week. It was great.´

Alexa said that they …………………………… (order) breakfast from them a week before. It …………………………… (be) great.

5) ´I´ll phone them. I´ve got their number here.´

Thomas said that he …………………………… (will) phone them.

A. Las respuestas correctas

1) ´I´m starving! I haven´t had any breakfast.´

Thomas said that he was starving and that he didn´t have any breakfast.

2) ´I´m feeling a bit hungry too.´

Alexa said that she was feeling a bit hungry as well.

3) ´We can order breakfast from McDonalds if you want.´

Thomas said that they could order breakfast from McDonalds if they wanted.

4) ´We ordered breakfast from them last week. It was great.´

Alexa said that they had ordered breakfast from them a week before. It had been great.

5) ´I´ll phone them. I´ve got their number here.´

Thomas said that he would phone them.

B. Match the time and place references.

Direct Speech:

1. Last week ……………………………

2. Yesterday ……………………………

3. now ……………………………

4. tonight ……………………………

5. this afternoon ……………………………

6. tomorrow ……………………………

7. next week ……………………………

8. here ……………………………

9. these ……………………………

B. Las respuestas correctas

1. Last week – the week before

2. Yesterday – the day before

3. now – then, at that moment

4. tonight – that night

5. this afternoon – that afternoon

6. tomorrow – the next day

7. next week – the following week

8. here - there

9. these - those

C. Rewrite the reported statements in direct speech.

1) Carla said the she wanted to go to the cinema the next day

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) She said that she had seen some adverts for a film in the newspaper.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) She said that she could buy half-price tickets if we went to the screening at five o´clock.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

4) She told me that we would have to reserve the tickets online

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

5) She said that she was really looking forward to the film.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

C. Las respuestas correctas

1) Carla said the she wanted to go to the cinema the next day

Carla: “ I want to go to the cinema tomorrow.”

2) She said that she had seen some adverts for a film in the newspaper.

She: “I´ve seen some adverts for a film in the newspaper.”

3) She said that she could buy half-price tickets if we went to the screening at five o´clock.

She: “We can buy half-price tickets if we go to the screening at five o´clock.”

4) She told me that we would have to reserve the tickets online

She: “We will have to reserve the tickets online.”

5) She said that she was really looking forward to the film.

She: “I´m really looking forward to the film.”

D. Match the direct and reported commands and suggestions.

1) ´Don´t go shopping it´s Buy Nothing Day´

2) ´Recycle your glass and plastic containers´

3) ´Stop talking while I´m watching TV!´

4) ´Why don´t you buy some second-hand furniture?´

5) ´Let´s go to the second-hand shop tomorrow´

a) Elizabeth told us to recycle our glass and plastic containers.

b) Andrew told me not to go shopping because it was Buy Nothing Day.

c) She ordered us to be quiet while she was watching TV.

d) Georgina suggested we go to the second-hand shop the following day.

e) Sabrina suggested that I bought some second-hand furniture.

D. Las respuestas correctas

1) ´Don´t go shopping it´s Buy Nothing Day´

Andrew told me not to go shopping because it was Buy Nothing Day.

2) ´Recycle your glass and plastic containers´

Elizabeth told us to recycle our glass and plastic containers.

3) ´Stop talking while I´m watching TV!´

She ordered us to be quiet while she was watching TV.

4) ´Why don´t you buy some second-hand furniture?´

Sabrina suggested that I bought some second-hand furniture.

5) ´Let´s go to the second-hand shop tomorrow´

Georgina suggested we go to the second-hand shop the following day.

E. Choose the correct options to complete the reported questions.

1) ´What are you doing?´

She asked me what I was doing / was I doing. I said I was reading.

2) ´What is the book about?

´She asked me what the book is / was about. I replied it was about meditation.

3) ´Have you finished yet? You´ve reading it for weeks!

´She asked me why / if I had finished the book yet. I told that I hadn´t.

4) ´Is it interesting?´

She asked me weather / whether the book was interesting. I said it was.

5) ´Do you think I would enjoy it? ´

She asked me did / if I thought she would enjoy it.

E. Las respuestas correctas

1) ´What are you doing?´

She asked me what I was doing. I said I was reading.

2) ´What is the book about?´

She asked me what the book was about. I replied it was about meditation.

3) ´Have you finished yet? You´ve reading it for weeks!

´She asked me if I had finished the book yet. I told that I had´t.

4) ´Is it interesting?´

She asked me whether the book was interesting. I said it was.

5) ´Do you think I would enjoy it? ´

She asked me if I thought she would enjoy it.

F. Write these sentences in direct speech.

1) She said Mary had to eat vegetables.

Mary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) He said that his brother could tell good jokes.

My brother ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) I said it was an interesting place.

It ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4) His sister said she was going to go

I …………………………………………………………………………………………………

5) He told me that he had said sorry.

I …………………………………………………………………………………………………

6) Paul said that Mary was sleeping

Mary ……………………………………………………………………………………………

7) I thought I would never get married

I …………………………………………………………………………………………………

8) She said that she was going to change her name

I …………………………………………………………………………………………………

9) She said that they were having a chat

We ………………………………………………………………………………………………

10) He told me that motorcycles could only drive on the lines

Motorcycles ………………………………………………………………………………

F. Las respuestas correctas

1) She said Mary had to eat vegetables.

Mary has to eat vegetables.

2) He said that his brother could tell good jokes.

My brother can tell good jokes.

3) I said it was an interesting place.

It is an interesting place.

4) His sister said she was going to go

I am going to go.

5) He told me that he had said sorry.

I have said sorry.

6) Paul said that Mary was sleeping.

Mary is sleeping.

7) I thought I would never get married.

I will never get married.

8) She said that she was going to change her name.

I am going to change my name.

9) She said that they were having a chat.

We are having a chat.

10) He told me that motorcycles could only drive on the lines.

Motorcycles can only drive on the lines.

G. Write the questions in reported speech. Remember to change the pronouns.

1) ´What do you think of Dublin?´

He asked Silvia …………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) ´Did John understand it?´

I asked ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) ´Where did Niel stay in Tenerife?´

She wanted to know ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

4) ´Why is Megan smiling?

He asked …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

5) ´Will you promise to phone?´

She asked Pete …………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

6) ´Can they speak Spanish well?´

Lou asked …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

7) ´Would Mary like to go to the cinema?

He wanted to know …………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

8) ´Who´s your favourite singer?´

She asked him …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………

9) ´When will you visit again?´

He asked Marina ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

10) ´Is Vic going out on Saturday?´

She wanted to know ………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

G. Las respuestas correctas

1) ´What do you think of Dublin?´

He asked Silvia what she thought of Dublin.

2) ´Did John understand it?´

I asked if John had understand it.

3) ´Where did Niel stay in Tenerife?´

She wanted to know where Niel had stayed in Tenerife.

4) ´Why is Megan smiling?

He asked why Megan was smiling.

5) ´Will you promise to phone?´

She asked Pete If he would promise to phone.

6) ´Can they speak Spanish well?´

Lou asked if they could speak Spanish well.

7) ´Would Mary like to go to the cinema?

He wanted to know if Mary would like to go to the cinema.

8) ´Who´s your favourite singer?´

She asked him who his favourite singer was.

9) ´When will you visit again?´

He asked Marina when she will visit again.

10) ´Is Vic going out on Saturday?´

She wanted to know if Vic was going out on Saturday.

H. Write these sentences in reported speech

1) I love the new clothes shop in town

She said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) We´re going to be a few minutes late

They said …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) You´ve broken my camera

He said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

4) You can´t use your mobile in the garage

She said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

5) We´re having a pizza

They said …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

6) I didn´t go on holiday

He said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

7) You must eat your vegetables

Mum said …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

8) We´ll be at the station at nine o´clock

They said …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

9) I speak four languages

She said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

10) I´m sorry

She said ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

11) I´m happier because I never read newspapers

Paul said …………………………………………………….……………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

12) I´ve never bought one

He added …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

13) ´I´ve already given you the DVD,´James told George.

James told George that ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

14) Eli said, ´I need to know´

Eli said that ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

15) ´My friend will tell me the answer, ´replied Esther.

Esther replied that ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

16) ´I must see you tomorrow, ´John told Juliet

John told Juliet that …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………

17) ´We´d prefer to go without him, ´they said

They said that …………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

18) ´I´ll be here until seven o´clock, ´Annie told María

Annie told María that …………………………………………………..……………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

19) Harvey said; ´This article is interesting.´

Harvey said that ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

20) Gina said, ´I haven´t had time to read it´

Gina said that ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

21) My friend said: ´It looks like it´s going to rain.´

My friend said that .………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

22) Dina replied, ´We have already studied that.´

Dina replied that ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

23) I´m meeting Sue for lunch, Pat told me.

Pat told me that ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

24) ´We don´t know the route, ´my friends said.´

My friends told me that ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

25) I go skiing every winter, ´said Katy

Katy said that ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

H. Las respuestas correctas

1) I love the new clothes shop in town.

She said that she loved the news clothes shop in town.

2) We´re going to be a few minutes late.

They said that they were going to be a few minutes late.

3) You´ve broken my camera.

He said that I had broken his camera.

4) You can´t use your mobile in the garage.

She said that I couldn´t use my mobile in the garage.

5) We´re having a pizza.

They said that they were having a pizza.

6) I didn´t go on holiday.

He said that he hadn´t gone on holiday.

7) You must eat your vegetables.

Mum said that I had to eat my vegetables.

8) We´ll be at the station at nine o´clock.

They said that they would be at the station at nine o´clock.

9) I speak four languages.

She said that she spoke four languages.

10) I´m sorry.

She said that she was sorry.

11) I´m happier because I never read newspapers.

Paul said that he´s happier because he never reads newspapers

12) I´ve never bought one.

He added that he had never bought one.

13) ´I´ve already given you the DVD,´James told George.

James told George that he´d already given him the DVD.

14) Eli said, ´I need to know.´

Eli said that she needed to know.

15) ´My friend will tell me the answer, ´replied Esther.

Esther replied that her friend would tell her the answer.

16) ´I must see you tomorrow, ´John told Juliet.

John told Juliet that he had to see her the next day.

17) ´We´d prefer to go without him, ´they said.

They said that they´d prefer to go without them.

18) ´I´ll be here until seven o´clock, ´Annie told María.

Annie told María that she would be there until about seven o´clock.

19) Harvey said; ´This article is interesting.´

Harvey said that that article was interesting.

20) Gina said: ´I haven´t had time to read it´

Gina said that she hadn´t had time to read it.

21) My friend said: ´It looks like it´s going to rain.´

My friend said that it looks like it was going to rain.

22) Dina replied: ´We have already studied that.´

Dina replied that they´d already studied that.

23) I´m meeting Sue for lunch, Pat told me.

Pat told me that she was meeting Sue for lunch.

24) ´We don´t know the route, ´my friends said.´

My friends told me that they didn´t know the route.

25) I go skiing every winter, ´said Katy.´

Katy said that she was going skiing every winter.

I. Make direct questions into reported questions

1) ´What´s his phone number?´

She wanted to know …………………………………………………………………..

2) ´Do you come here often? ´

He asked her ………………………………………………………………………………

3) ´Have you seen this film?´

He wanted to know ……………………………………………………………………

4) ´Why haven´t you called me? ´

She asked him ……………………………………………………………………………

5) ´Where will he be at 3 pm? ´

She asked him ……………………………………………………………………………

6) ´Can you play the guitar? ´

She asked him ……………………………………………………………………………

7) ´When were they born?´

She wanted to know …………………………………………………………………

8) ´Are you going to buy a mobile?´

She asked him ……………………………………………………………………………

I. Las respuestas correctas

1) ´What´s his phone number?´

She wanted to know what his phone number was.

2) ´Do you come here often? ´

He asked her if she came there very often.

3) ´Have you seen this film?´

He wanted to know if I had seen that film.

4) ´Why haven´t you called me?´

She asked him why he hadn´t called her.

5) ´Where will he be at 3 pm?´

She asked him where he would be at 3 pm.

6) ´Can you play the guitar? ´

She asked him if he could play the guitar.

7) ´When were they born?´

She wanted to know when they had been born.

8) ´Are you going to buy a mobile?´

She asked him if he was going to buy a mobile.