Gerundio o infinitivo

Gerundio

Las formas verbales en –ing se utilizan:

* detrás de ciertos verbos y phrasal verbs.

I don´t mind waiting. No me importa esperar.

She took up sailing. Empezó a practicar la vela.

* detrás de las preposiciones.

I´m not very good at skiing.

No se me da muy bien el esquí.

They left before finishing their drinks.

Se marcharon antes de acabar sus bebidas.

* en función de sustantivo, casi siempre como sujeto de una frase o proposición.

My favourite hobby is skateboarding.

Mi afición favorita es el skate.

Writing music is difficult.

Escribir música es difícil.

Verbos + formas vebales en –ing

Algunas verbos van seguidos de formas verbales en –ing.

admit – avoid – can´t stand – consider – don´t mind – enjoy – finish – give up – hate – imagine – like – love – mention – miss – practice – resist – risk – start – stop – suggest – try

He finished reading.

Acabó de leer.

She admitted being wrong.

Reconoció que se había equivocado.

La negativa se construye colocando not delante de la forma verbal en –ing.

He hated not passing his exams.

Odiaba no aprobar los exámenes.

Infinitivo

El infinitivo con to se utiliza:

* detrás de algunos verbos y phrasal verbs. I want to meet her.

Quiero conocerla. She pretended to be sad.

Fingió estar triste.

* detrás de los sustantivos. I´ve got homework to do.

Tengo deberes que hacer. It´s time to go.

Es hora de marcharse.

* detrás de los adjetivos. It´s great to see you.

Me alegro mucho de verte. I´ll be sad to leave.

Me va a dar pena mancharme.

Verbo + infinitivo

Algunos verbos van seguidos del infinitivo:

Affort – agree – arrange – ask – attempt – beg – choose – dare – decide – expect – hope – intend – learn – like – manage – pretend – promise – refuse – seem – want

He wanted to come.

Quería venir.

She seemed to be happy.

Parecía estar contenta.

La forma negativa se construye colocando not delante del infinitivo.

He decided not to go.

Decidió no ir.

Verbo + froma verbal en –ing o infinitivo.

Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos de la forma verbal en –ing o el infinitivo sin que el significado cambie.

Like – love – hate - prefer

Ejercicios

A. Complete the text with the gerund form of the verbs in brackets.

1) Do you feel like …………………………. (improve) your memory?

2) There are a few simple things you can do. First, you should stop …………………………. (write) lists and notes in your diary. You should try to use your memory more.

3) …………………………. (exercise) your memory is very important because it can become lazy and this lead to memory loss.

4) …………………………. (change) the order that you do things can also help stimulate your memory.

5) …………………………. (play) new games is another good way of …………………………. (increase) your memory power.

6) Games like solitaire are good for …………………………. (improve) your ability to remember number.

7) Don´t forget to exercise your body too! Go …………………………. (jog) or …………………………. (walk).

8) Soon you can look forward to …………………………. (have) a healthy body and an improved memory.

A. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Do you feel like improving your memory?

2) There are a few simple things you can do. First, you should stop writing lists and notes in your diary. You should try to use your memory more.

3) Exercising your memory is very important because it can become lazy and this lead to memory loss.

4) Changing the order that you do things can also help stimulate your memory.

5) Playing new games is another good way of increasing your memory power.

6) Games like solitaire are good for improving your ability to remember number.

7) Don´t forget to exercise your body too! Go jogging or walking.

8) Soon you can look forward to having a healthy body and an improved memory.

B. Rewrite the sentences using the words given and an infinitive. Include “to” if necessary.

1) I want to study Biology next year.

I´d like ………………………….………………………….……………………….…… ……………………….………………………….………………………….……………….

2) My doctor recommends I eat more oily fish to improve my memory.

I´d better …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

3) I should sleep a minimum of eight hours a night.

It´s important ………………………………………………………………………. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

4) I don´t have time to do enough exercise because I´m too busy.

I should ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

5) I have enough money to buy whatever I want.

I can afford ………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

6) I prefer studying Internet Marketing to Law.

I´d rather …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

B. Las respuestas correctas

1) I want to study Biology next year.

I´d like to study Biology next year.

2) My doctor recommends I eat more oily fish to improve my memory.

I´d better eat more only fish to improve my memory.

3) I should sleep a minimum of eight hours a night.

It´s important to sleep a minimum of eight hours a night.

4) I don´t have time to do enough exercise because I´m too busy.

I should exercise more.

5) I have enough money to buy whatever I want.

I can afford to buy whatever I want.

6) I prefer studying Internet Marketing to Law.

I´d rather study Internet Marketing than Law.

C. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same. Use the words in brackets and a gerund.

1) I think she plays the guitar very well. (good at)

I think she ……………………………………………………………………………. ……………………….…………………………. ………………………….……………..

2) They didn´t have a hit single even though they won the record deal. (despite)

They didn´t have a hit single ………………………………………………………. ………………………. ………………………….………………………….……………………

3) The band threw their caps into the crowd, and then they left the stage (before).

The band threw their caps into the crowd ………………………………… ………………………. ………………………….………………………….……………..

4) That new band played for two hours at the concert and they didn´t stop. (without)

That new band played for two hours at the concert …………………. ……………………….………………………….………………………….…………………..

5) He didn´t save the money. He spent it on an iPad. (instead of)

……………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………….………………………….…………….., he spent it on an iPad.

C. Las respuestas correctas

1) I think she plays the guitar very well. (good at)

I think she´s very good at playing guitar.

2) They didn´t have a hit single even though they won the record deal. (despite)

They didn´t have a hit single despite not having a hit single.

3) The band threw their caps into the crowd, and then they left the stage (before).

The band threw their caps into the crowd before leaving the stage.

4) That new band played for two hours at the concert and they didn´t stop. (without)

That new band played for two hours at the concert without stopping.

5) He didn´t save the money. He spent it on an iPad. (instead of)

Instead of saving the money, he spent it on an iPad.

D. Complete the text. Use the correct one of these verbs: come, show, take, visit, walk.

The rappers P.Daddy, Fot Joe and LL Col J have recently gone into tourism and have decided ………. Hip hop fans a visit the Bronx and Harlem with them. Rapper tour guides want ………….. people where hip hop began 20 years ago.

Tourists from all over the world have come to the hip hop capital to take part in the tours. Aiden from the UK said, “It´s a great ……………… the studios where the first hip hop records were recorded- It´s fantastic …………………. to the Bronx – it has been my dream ……………………. route the streets and houses or neighbourhoods where my hip hop heroes lived!”

D. Las respuestas correctas

The rappers P.Daddy, Fot Joe and LL Col J have recently gone into tourism and have decided show Hip hop fans a visit the Bronx and Harlem with them. Rapper tour guides want to take people where hip hop began 20 years ago.

Tourists from all over the world have come to the hip hop capital to take part in the tours. Aiden from the UK said, “It´s a great to visit the studios where the first hip hop records were recorded- It´s fantastic to come to the Bronx – it has been my dream walk route the streets and houses or neighbourhoods where my hip hop heroes lived!”

E. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use infinitive.

1) We´ve made a decision that we´re starting a band.

We´ve decided ……………………. a band.

2) Listening to music stops you being sad. It´s good …………………… to music when you are said.

3) We can´t get into the room backstage-there isn´t time.

There isn´t time ……………………. into the room backstage.

4) My boyfriend always has problems remembering the words of songs.

My boyfriend finds it difficult …………………….the words of songs.

5) Singing is easier than dancing for some people,

Some people find it easier ……………………. than dance.

6) Come on! We´re leaving for the concert now.

Come on! It´s time ……………………. for the concert.

E. Las respuestas correctas

1) We´ve made a decision that we´re starting a band.

We´ve decided to start a band.

2) Listening to music stops you being sad. It´s good to listen to music when you are said.

3) We can´t get into the room backstage-there isn´t time.

There isn´t time to get into the room backstage.

4) My boyfriend always has problems remembering the words of songs.

My boyfriend finds it difficult to remember the words of songs.

5) Singing is easier than dancing for some people,

Some people find it easier to sing than dance.

6) Come on! We´re leaving for the concert now.

Come on! It´s time to leave for the concert.

F. Complete the sentences with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs.

1) He can´t stand ……………………. (tidy) his bedroom.

2) I don´t mind ……………………. (help) my daughter with her homework.

3) She wants ……………………. (do) here homework tonight.

4) He agreed ……………………. (lend) me a DVD.

5) I enjoy ……………………. (play) tennis in the summer.

F. Las respuestas correctas

1) He can´t stand tidying his bedroom.

2) I don´t mind helping my daughter with her homework.

3) She wants to do here homework tonight.

4) He agreed to lend me a DVD.

5) I enjoy to play tennis in the summer.

G. Write questions and sentences. Use a gerund or an infinitive.

1) He can´t stand / listen to / his sister practising the violin.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

2) She / loves / reading

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

3) you / enjoy / shop / with your friends ?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

4) What / you / want / do / this weekend?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

5) I love / jog / but my best friend prefers / play / basketball.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

6) She doesn´t mind / watch / TV

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

G. Las respuestas correctas

1) He can´t stand / listen to / his sister practising the violin.

He can´t stand to listen to his sister practicing the violin.

2) She / loves / reading

She loves reading.

3) you / enjoy / shop / with your friends ?

Do you enjoy to shop with your friends?

4) What / you / want / do / this weekend?

What do you want to do this weekend?

5) I love / jog / but my best friend prefers / play / basketball.

I love jogging but my best friend prefers to play basketball.

6) She doesn´t mind / watch / TV

She doesn´t mind watching TV.

H. Read the dialogue. Choose the correct alternatives.

a: What´s Aiden up to these days?

b: I heard that he finished (to study / studying) a couple of months ago and he´s on holiday now.

a: Are you sure? I thought he had offered (to give / giving) music classes in the local school for a couple of months after (to complete / completing) his course.

b: Well, he´s certainly not working there at the moment.

a: Hmmm. Does anyone plan (to see / seeing) him soon?

b: Well I promised (to get in touch / getting in touch) over the summer but I couldn´t.

a: Oh well. I´m sure he wanted (to keep in touch / keeping in touch) but he´s probably very busy!

b: Yeah you know what he´s like! I bet he can´t wait (to see / seeing) us again! He´ll be back before we know it!

H. Las respuestas correctas

a: What´s Aiden up to these days?

b: I heard that he finished studying a couple of months ago and he´s on holiday now.

a: Are you sure? I thought he had offered to give music classes in the local school for a couple of months after completing his course.

b: Well, he´s certainly not working there at the moment.

a: Hmmm. Does anyone plan to see him soon?

b: Well I promised to get in touch over the summer but I couldn ´t.

a: Oh well. I´m sure he wanted to keep in touch but he´s probably very busy!

b: Yeah you know what he´s like! I bet he can´t wait to see us again! He´ll be back before we know it!

I. Write sentences. Use the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs.

1) Babies / can´t help / cry

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

2) those birds / keep / sing / the same song

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

3) she / miss / eat / paella when she was in the Netherlands.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

4) I / want / work / in a ski resort one day

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

5) you / enjoy / go / to the cinema?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

6) we / can´t wait / go / to your exhibition

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

7) he / promise / get / home before midnight

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

8) they / refuse / help / you / ?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

I. Las respuestas correctas

1) Babies / can´t help / cry

Babies can´t help crying.

2) those birds / keep / sing / the same song

Those birds keep singing the same song.

3) she / miss / eat / paella when she was in the Netherlands.

She missed eating paella when she was in the Netherlands.

4) I / want / work / in a ski resort one day

I want to work in a ski resort one day.

5) you / enjoy / go / to the cinema?

Do you enjoy going to the cinema?

6) we / can´t wait / go / to your exhibition

We can´t wait to go to your exhibition.

7) he / promise / get / home before midnight

He promise to get home before midnight.

8) they / refuse / help / you / ?

Do they refuse to help you?

J. Rewrite the sentences to mean the same. Use the verbs in brackets and a gerund or infinitive.

1) When will the band have completed the recording of their single? (finish)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………… 2) They think they´ll sign a new record deal next week (expect)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) They think they´ll go on tour September. (plan)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

4) The band have said they might play in the Arena (suggest)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………

5) The lead singer said he would sing on the next album. (promise)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..

J. Las respuestas correctas

1) When will the band have completed the recording of their single? (finish)

When will the band finish completing the recording of their single?

2) They think they´ll sign a new record deal next week (expect)

The expect to sign a new record deal next week.

3) They think they´ll go on tour September. (plan)

They plan to go on tour September.

4) The band have said they might play in the Arena (suggest)

The band suggested playing in the Arena.

5) The lead singer said he would sing on the next album. (promise)

The lead singer promised to sing on the next album.