Presente perfecto simple presente perfecto continuo

1.- Present perfect continuous

Esta forma verbal se emplea cuando interesa destacar la acción en sí misma más que el resultado; no se precisa si la acción ha finalizado o no (la acción comenzó en el pasado y puede que acabe de terminar o que incluso continúe).

I have been reading a book (resalto lo que he estado haciendo; no indico si he finalizado el libro o no)

Este tiempo se utiliza también para indicar la duración de una acción que comenzó en el pasado (y que acaba de finalizar o aún continúa).

I have been playing tennis for two hours

I have been waiting for him for 1 hour (puede que la otra persona acabe de llegar o que yo aún siga esperando; el contexto determinará un sentido u otro)

El empleo de este tiempo indica que el emisor considera que la duración ha sido larga.

2.- Present perfect simple

Describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y que acaba de finalizar. Pone el énfasis en el resultado y no en la acción en si misma.

I have read a book (destaco que he leído un libro, que lo he terminado, y no el hecho de haber dedicado un tiempo a la lectura).

En el siguiente ejemplo se puede observar la diferencia entre estas dos formas verbales:

I have done my homework (indico que ya lo he finalizado)

I have been doing my homework (indico la actividad que he estado desarrollando; no informo de si he terminado mis deberes o no)

Se utiliza también para indicar cuantas acciones se han realizado en un tiempo determinado.

Today I have read ten books

El empleo de este tiempo informa indirectamente sobre el presente, ya que conlleva que la situación no ha cambiado.

He has gone to Canada (esta persona sigue en Canda o está de viaje hacia allí; en cualquier caso todavía no ha regresado)

I have broken my leg (la pierna sigue rota; aún no ha sanado)

Si no se da información sobre el presente hay que utilizar el "past simple".

He went to Canada (no se informa de si él sigue allí o ya volvió)

I broke my leg (puede que la pierna ya esté curada o que aún siga rota)

Ejercicios

A. Complete the sentences with the present perfect continuous / or of the verbs in brackets.

1) What ………………….. ? I haven´t seen you all day. (you / do)

2) I ………………….. this novel for three hours. (read)

3) John and I ………………….. with the band. (practice)

4) We ………………….. very well lately. (not / play)

5) How long ………………….. with them? (you / sing)

A. Las respuestas correctas.

1) What have you been doing ? I haven´t seen you all day.

2) I have been reading this novel for three hours.

3) John and I have been practicing with the band.

4) We haven´t been playing very well lately.

5) How long have you been singing with them?

B. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences.

1) I (have lived / have been living) in two different places this year and I´m moving again soon.

2) Usher (has visited / has been visiting) me every day this week.

3) He (has told / has been telling) me about his problems at work lately.

4) I (have listened / have been listening) to him for three hours today.

5) We (have solved / have been solving) his problems now.

6) He (has decided / has been deciding) to talk to his boss.

B. Las respuestas correctas.

1) I have been living in two different places this year and I´m moving again soon.

2) Usher has been visiting me every day this week.

3) He has been telling me about his problems at work lately.

4) I have been listening to him for three hours today.

5) We have solved his problems now.

6) He has decided to talk to his boss.

C. Present perfect simple or continuous.

1) Jane ……………….. (write) a letter to a magazine. She …………………. (not finish) it yet.

2) Laura ………………….. (look) for her pen-knife, but she ………………….. (not find) it yet.

3) Johann ………………….. (wait) for the bus for half an hour, but it ………………….. (not arrive) yet.

4) Elizabeth ………………….. (play) a computer game for two hours and she is still playing.

5) Mike ………………….. (not finish) painting his car yet. He ………………….. (work) on it for two weeks.

6) Romelia ………………….. (not come) home yet. She ………………….. (shop) in town since 10 o´clock.

7) Mike’s car ………………….. (make) strange noises. Nick and Jane ………………….. (clean) all the parts.

8) Jerry ………………….. (draw) cartoons for two hours. He ………………….. (not finish) yet.

9) Greg ………………….. (wait) for Jenny in town. Jenny ………………….. (not arrive) yet.

10) Gemma ………………….. (knit) a pullover. She ………………….. (not finish) yet.

11) It ………………….. (rain) all day and it ………………….. (not stop) yet.

12) Mrs. O’Brien …………………..(make) tests all evening but she ………………….. (not find) a perfect one yet.

C. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Jane has been writing a letter to a magazine. She hasn’t finished it yet.

2) Laura has been looking for her pen-knife, but she hasn’t found it yet.

3) Johann has been waiting for the bus for half an hour, but it hasn´t arrived yet.

4) Elizabeth has been playing a computer game for two hours and she is still playing.

5) Mike hasn´t finished painting his car yet. He has been working on it for two weeks.

6) Romelia hasn´t come home yet. She has been shopping in town since 10 o´clock.

7) Mike´s car has been making strange noises. Nick and Jane have cleaned all the parts.

8) Jerry has been drawing cartoons for two hours. He hasn´t finished yet.

9) Greg has been waiting for Jenny in town. Jenny hasn’t arrived yet.

10) Gemma has been knitting a pullover. She hasn’t finished yet.

11) It has been raining all day and it hasn’t stopped yet.

12) Mrs. O´Brien has been making tests all evening but she hasn’t found a perfect one yet.

D. Complete the sentences with the present perfect simple or continuous form of the verb: do, never have, lose, rain, not see, play, think, try, visit.

1) What are you looking for? ………………….. you ………………….. something?

2) We ………………….. to phone you all day. Where have you been?

3) I ………………….. this exercise for a few minutes.

4) Thanks for the present. I ………………….. a watch before.

5) I ………………….. about her all the time since the moment we met.

6) She ………………….. him once or twice, but not recently.

7) It ………………….. nearly all day. I hope it stops now.

8) I ………………….. that film yet. Is it good?

9) That child´s clothes are dirty. She´s ………………….. in the garden.

D. Las respuestas correctas.

1) What are you looking for? Have you lost something?

2) We have been trying to phone you all day. Where have you been?

3) I have been doing this exercise for a few minutes.

4) Thanks for the present. I’ve never had a watch before.

5) I have been thinking about her all the time since the moment we met.

6) She has seen him once or twice, but not recently.

7) It has been raining nearly all day. I hope it stops now.

8) I haven’t seen that film yet. Is it good?

9) That child´s clothes are dirty. She´s been playing in the garden.

E. Put the verbs into the correct tense (present perfect simple or present perfecto continuous)

1) ……………………….. you ……………………….. (take) the dog for a walk yet?

2) I ……………………….. (work) all day. I ……………………….. (just come) home from work.

3) I ……………………….. (play) football for five years.

4) My team ……………………….. (only win) two matches so far.

5) Are we not there yet? We ……………………….. (walk) for hours.

6) I ……………………….. (just finish) my homework.

7) I ……………………….. (work) on writing these exercises for four hours.

8) How long ……………………….. (wait) for me?

9) Don´t worry, they ……………………….. (touch not) your Nintendo.

10) Pedro ……………………….. (hear) a dog barking all night.

E. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Have you taken the dog for a walk yet?

2) I have been working all day. I have just come home from work.

3) I’ve been playing football for five years.

4) My team have won two matches so far.

5) Are we not there yet? We have been walking for hours.

6) I‘ve just finished my homework.

7) I’ve been working on writing these exercises for four hours.

8) How long have you been waiting for me?

9) Don´t worry, they haven’t touched your Nintendo.

10) Pedro has been hearing a dog barking all night.

F. Complete the sentences with present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

1) We ……………………….. (work) for five hours without a break.

2) Wake up Eve! You ……………………….. (sleep) all afternoon.

3) I have to write a 300 word essay. I ……………………….. (write) about half so far.

4) I´m exhausted. I ……………………….. (work) in the garden all day.

5) How is Remy? I ……………………….. (not see) her in ages.

6) You’re covered in dirt, Elaine. What ……………………….. (you do)?

7) ………………………..(you drink)? I can smell alcohol.

8) We ……………………….. (look) at the figures and they are not good.

9) I ……………………….. (only read) a few pages.

10) John’s daughter ……………………….. (grow) since I last saw her.  

F. Las respuestas correctas.

1) We have been working for five hours without a break.

2) Wake up Eve! You have been sleeping all afternoon.

3) I have to write a 300 word essay. I have written about half so far.

4) I´m exhausted. I’ve been working in the garden all day.

5) How is Remy? I haven’t seen her in ages.

6) You’re covered in dirt, Elaine. What have you been doing?

7) Have you been drinking? I can smell alcohol.

8) We’ve looked at the figures and they are not good.

9) I’ve only read a few pages.

10) John’s daughter has grown since I last saw her.