Las oraciones de relativo

Las subordinadas de relativo aportan información adicional aceca de algo. Los pronombres relativos who, which, that, where y whose se utilizan para introducir una subordinada de relativo.

Defining relative clauses

That´s the boy who I play football with.

The shop where I bought this top is near here.

The computer that we bought stopped working.

* Las subordinadas especificativas de relativo (defining relative clauses) especifican o definen aquello de lo que se habla. Aportan información adicional sobre alquien o algo.

* who o that se utilizan para hablar de una persona.

The man who works in the shop is very friendly.

The girl that I met at the party had long, brown hair.

* which o that se utilizan para hablar de una cosa.

The pen which I lost was silver.

The car that I bought was really good.

* whose se utilize para los posesivos.

That´s the woman whose son is an athlete.



+ ¡ Puntos extra ! +

En las subordinadas especificativas de relativo puede omitirse el proponombre relativo cuando este realize la función de objeto directo.

That´s the book (that) I bought.

(that refers to the book, and is the object of the verb bought)

She´s the girl (who) I met.

(who refers to the girl, and is the object of the verb met)

Non-defining relative clauses

The book, which wasn´t expensive, was fascinating.

Maria, who has been in London, is coming home tomorrow.

David, whose brother lives near me, works in that shop.

* Las subordinadas explicativas de relativo (non-defining relative clauses) proporcionan información.

Mr Thompson, who works in the shop, is very friendly.

* Los pronombres relativos no pueden omitirse en las subordinadas explicativas de relativo.

The criminal, who the police wre following, escaped.

* Es posible unir dos frases cortas mediante un pronombre relativo para hacer una frase más larga.

Alison´s sister is called Debbie. She´s a nurse.

Allison´s sister, who´s a nurse, is called Debbie.

* Las subordinadas explicativas de relative van separadas del resto de la frase por comas.

We went to Bristol, where my brother used to live, at the weekend.



¡Cuidado!!

En las suborinadas explicativas de relativa no se utiliza that.

My scooter, that I got for my birthday last year, has never broken down. (Incorrect)

My scooter, which I got for my birthday last year, has never broken down. (Correct)

Ejercicios

A. Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun.

1) A neurologist is someone …………………… treats disorders in the nervous system.

2) Neurology is a medical science …………………… is dedicated to brain research.

3) A laboratory or hospital is …………………… neurologists work.

4) 1924 was the year …………………… Hans Berger carried out the first ECG reading of a human brain.

5) Berger is the scientist …………………… invention, the ECG machine, allows us to see how the brain works.

6) It is a useful diagnostic instrument …………………… lets us see if a patient has any serious head injuries.

A. Las respuestas correctas.

1) A neurologist is someone who treats disorders in the nervous system.

2) Neurology is a medical science that is dedicated to brain research.

3) A laboratory or hospital is where neurologists work.

4) 1924 was the year when Hans Berger carried out the first ECG reading of a human brain.

5) Berger is the scientist whose invention, the ECG machine, allows us to see how the brain works.

6) It is a useful diagnostic instrument that lets us see if a patient has any serious head injuries.

B. Choose the correct relative pronoun to complete the sentences.

1) October 1995 is the month (which / when) I started university.

2) Amsterdam is the City (where / which) I studied.

3) Literature is the subject (who / which) I studied.

4) A good teacher is someone (which / who) explains things clearly.

5) This is the jacket (when / which) I bought for the cold winters in Amsterdam.

B. Las respuestas correctas.

1) October 1995 is the month when I started university.

2) Amsterdam is the City where I studied.

3) Literature is the subject which I studied.

4) A good teacher is someone who explains things clearly.

5) This is the jacket which I bought for the cold winters in Amsterdam.

C. Complete the sentences starting with the words given.

1) I studied at that university.

That’s the university …………………………………………………………………

2) That professor helped me prepare for my exams.

That’s the professor ………………………………………………………………

3) Her brother studied with me.

That’s the girl ………………………………………………………………………………

4) Maths was the most difficult subject for me.

Maths was the subject ………………………………………………………………

5) I finished my degree in June 2001.

June 2001 was the month ……………………………………………………………

C. Las respuestas correctas.

1) I studied at that university.

That’s the university where I studied.

2) That professor helped me prepare for my exams.

That’s the professor who helped me prepare for my exam.

3) Her brother studied with me.

That’s the girl whose brother studied with me.

4) Maths was the most difficult subject for me.

Maths was the subject which was the most difficult for me.

5) I finished my degree in June 2001.

June 2001 was the month when I finished my degree.

D. Rewrite the sentences with not-defining relative clauses.

1) Here is the article I told you about. It’s really interesting.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) The scientist investigated the use of computers in the classroom. He comes from the university of Amsterdam.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3) He visited twenty schools to collect data for his investigation. All the students in those schools have computers.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4) Campoamor Primary School is one of the schools in the study. Students use computers in Math classes.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5) The head teacher believes that computers are essential in schools. She studied with my father.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6) The international study included schools from all over the world. It was very comprehensive.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

D. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Here is the article I told you about. It’s really interesting.

Here is the article I told you about, which is really interesting.

2) The scientist investigated the use of computers in the classroom. He comes from the university of Amsterdam.

The scientist who comes from the University of Amsterdam, investigated the use of computers in the classroom.

3) He visited twenty schools to collect data for his investigation. All the students in those schools have computers.

He visited twenty schools to collect data for his investigation where alle the students have computers.

4) Campoamor Primary School is one of the schools in the study. Students use computers in Math classes.

Campoamor Primary School is one of the schools in the study, where students use computers in Math classes.

5) The head teacher believes that computers are essential in schools. She studied with my father.

The head teacher, who studied with my father, believes that computers are essential in schools.

6) The international study included schools from all over the world. It was very comprehensive.

The international study, that included schools from all over the world, was very comprehensive.

E. Match the sentences with the relative clauses.

1) Roel, …………………., helps me with all of my computer problems.

2) He is very happy ………………….. He loves doing this-

3) The university …………………. Is one of the best technical universities.

4) Roel has recommended a new computer, ………………….

5) Roel, …………………., works very hard at university.

6) I bought him a DVD, …………………., to say thanks.

a. which he loved

b. which I will buy next month

c. whose company is paying for his degree

d. who is my neighbor

e. where he studies

f. when he is solving computer problems

E. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Roel, who is my neighbour, helps me with all of my computer problems.

2) He is very happy when he is solving computer problems. He loves doing this.

3) The university where he studies Is one of the best technical universities.

4) Roel has recommended a new computer, which I will buy next month.

5) Roel, whose company is paying for his degree, works very hard at university.

6) I bought him a DVD, which he loved, to say thanks.

F. Complete the sentences with who, which, where or when.

1) I like people …………………. are passionate.

2) Summer is the time …………………. I’m the happiest.

3) Cáceres is a place …………………. you can see a lot of monuments.

4) I prefer listening to music …………………. isn’t aggressive.

5) Learning vocabulary is something …………………. I find difficult.

6) I’m a person …………………. likes being sociable.

7) I’ll never forget the day …………………. I met my boyfriend.

8) I don’t understand people …………………. always play computer games.

F. Las respuestas correctas.

1) I like people who are passionate.

2) Summer is the time when I’m the happiest.

3) Cáceres is a place where you can see a lot of monuments.

4) I prefer listening to music which isn’t aggressive.

5) Learning vocabulary is something which I find difficult.

6) I’m a person who likes being sociable.

7) I’ll never forget the day when I met my boyfriend.

8) I don’t understand people who always play computer games.

G. Complete the sentences with who, who’s or whose.

1) Aiden, …………………. always sensitive, listened to my problems.

2) Do you know the person …………………. sitting next to Paul.

3) I prefer people …………………. ideas are more balanced.

4) I think that he’s de man …………………. been on TV.

5) The prize went to Olive, …………………. work is always so expressive.

6) There are some people …………………. worry a lot about their horoscope.

G. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Aiden, who’s always sensitive, listened to my problems.

2) Do you know the person who’s sitting next to Paul.

3) I prefer people whose ideas are more balanced.

4) I think that he’s de man who’s been on TV.

5) The prize went to Olive, whose work is always so expressive.

6) There are some people who worry a lot about their horoscope.

H. Rewrite the sentences using which, who, where or when.

1) She’s a teenage girl. She likes having fun.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

2) Saturday is a day. I never do any homework on Saturday.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

3) Dino’s coffee bar is a place. We first met there.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

4) Swimming is a sport. She finds swimming relaxing.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

5) August is the month. We usually go on holiday in August.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

6) This is the place. The incident happened here.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

7) Jamie is a person. I don’t understand him.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

8) I know a shop. The shop sells cheap clothes.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

H. Las respuestas correctas.

1) She’s a teenage girl. She likes having fun.

She’s a teenage girl who likes having fun.

2) Saturday is a day. I never do any homework on Saturday.

Saturday is a day when I never do any homework.

3) Dino’s coffee bar is a place. We first met there.

Dino’s coffee bar is a place where we first met.

4) Swimming is a sport. She finds swimming relaxing.

Swimming is a sport which she finds relaxing.

5) August is the month. We usually go on holiday in August.

August is the month when we usually go on holiday.

6) This is the place. The incident happened here.

This is the place where the incident happened.

7) Jamie is a person. I don’t understand him.

Jamie is a person who I don’t understand.

8) I know a shop. The shop sells cheap clothes.

I know a shop where they sell cheap clothes.

I. Rewrite the sentences. Use defining or non-difining relative clauses.

1) Málaga is my hometown. It’s got great nightlife.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

2) I’ve got a program. You can use it to do statistics.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

3) Antonio’s parents have a shop. Antonio works in the shop.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

4) Susana is only 18. She represents her country.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

5) Arturo is sometimes late. Arturo comes by bus.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

6) Here’s an idea. It will help you decide.

………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….………………….……

I. Las respuestas correctas.

1) Málaga is my hometown. It’s got great nightlife.

Málaga which is my hometown, has got a great nightlife.

2) I’ve got a program. You can use it to do statistics.

I’ve got a program that you can use to do statistics.

3) Antonio’s parents have a shop. Antonio works in the shop.

Antonio’s parents have a shop where he works.

4) Susana is only 18. She represents her country.

Susana, who is only 18, represents her country.

5) Arturo is sometimes late. Arturo comes by bus.

Arturo, who comes by bus, is sometimes late.

6) Here’s an idea. It will help you decide.

Here’s an idea that will help you decide.

Want me to tutor your child? Come to my online tutoring website!