Pasado simple pasado perfecto

Estructura pasado perfecto simpe (pretérito pluscuanperfecto)

Afirmativa

I / he / she / it / we / you / they + had (=´d) + participio pasado

I´d finished. Ya había acabado.

They had eaten. Ya habían comido.

Negativa

I / he / she / it / we / you / they + had not (=hadn´t) + participio

I hadn´t forgotten. No lo había olvidado.

They had not arrived. No habían llegado.

Interrogative

Had + I / he / she / it / we / you / they + participio pasado?

Had you seen her? ¿La habías visto?

Had they left? ¿Se habían marchado?

Uso

El pretérito pluscuamperfecto se utiliza:

* para hablar de acciones y situaciones del pasado que sucedieron antes que otra acción también pasada.

I had always wanted to travel, so I was delighted to receive the invitacion.

Siempre había querido viajar, pore so me encantó recibir la invitación.

I´d already left Moscow before he arrived.

Yo ya me había marchado de Moscú antes de que llegera él.

* para referirse a acciones o situaciones que se desarrollaron con anteriodad a un momento concreto del pasado.

By the time he was sixteen, he had lived in twenty different cities.

Para cuando cumplió los dieciséis años ya había vivido en veinte ciudades diferentes.

She had sent the invitation a month before the wedding.

Ella había mandado la invitación un mes antes de la boda.

* con la expresión it was the first / second / third time.

It was the first time that I´d visited Auckland.

Era la primera vez que iba a Auckland.

Past simple and past perfect simple

El pasado simple se uitiliza para hablar de acciones y situaciones que se completaron en el pasado.

I got to the station at 7.30.

Llegué a la estación a las 7.30.

El pretérito pluscuamperfecto hace referencia a acciones y situaciones del pasado que tuvieron lugar antes que otra acción también pasado. El pasado simple marca la acción más reciente.

I got to the station at 7.30 but the train had already left.

Llegué a la estación a las 7.30, pero el tren ya había salido.

Ejercicios

A. Pasado simple – pasado perfecto

1. I .................... (invite) Odalis to the party but she couldn´t come. She .................... (arrange) to do something else.

2. I .................... (go) to the cinema last night. I .................... (arrive) at the cinema late. The film .................... (already begin).

3. I .................... (be) very pleased to see Tony again after such a long time. I .................... (not, see) him for five years.

4. I .................... (offer) Pamela something to eat but she wasn´t hungry. She .................... (just, have) breakfast.

5. She told me, she .................... (buy) a new car.

6. I .................... (go) to Isa´s house but she wasn´t there. She .................... (go) out.

7. You .................... (go) back to your home town after many years. It wasn´t the same. It .................... (change) a lot.

8. When the phone .................... (ring), I .................... (just, open) the door.

9. After he .................... (take) the exam, he .................... (feel) more relaxed.

10. I was very tired, so I .................... (go) straight to bed.

11. The house was very quiet. Everybody .................... (go) to bed.

12. Tom .................... (not, be) at the party when I arrived. He .................... (go) home.

13. When Pia .................... (finish) her English homework, she ....................(go) to bed.

14. Elizabeth .................... (already, reach) home when the rain .................... (start).

15. After she .................... (mark) the exercises, the teacher ....................(give) them back to the students.

16. He .................... (send) the money two months after we ....................(sell) him the car.

17. She .................... (begin) to feel better after she .................... (go) to the doctor´s.

18. The bank robbers .................... (escape) before the police ....................(arrived).

19. After it .................... (rain) every day for a week, we ....................(decide) to go back home.

20. His tooth .................... (stop) hurting after he .................... (go) to the dentist.

21. He .................... (score) three goals when he .................... (be) injured.

22. He .................... (take) some photos, but he .................... (not, put) any film in his camera.

23. When I got home, I .................... (find) I .................... (leave) the bathroom taps on.

24. My parents .................... (try) to do something but the fire ....................(already, get out) of control.

25. When they arrived, they.................... (switch on) the television.

Las respuestas correctas

1. I invited Odalis to the party but she couldn´t come. She had arranged to do something else.

2. I went to the cinema last night. I arrived at the cinema late. The film had already begun.

3. I was very pleased to see Tony again after such a long time. I had not seen him for five years.

4. I offered Pamela something to eat but she wasn´t hungry. She just had breakfast.

5. She told me, she had bought a new car.

6. I went to Isa´s house but she wasn´t there. She had gone out.

7. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn´t the same. It had changed a lot.

8. When the phone rang, I just had opened the door.

9. After he had taken the exam, he felt more relaxed.

10. I was very tired, so I went straight to bed.

11. The house was very quiet. Everybody had gone to bed.

12. Tom wasn´t at the party when I arrived. He had gone home.

13. When Pia had finished her English homework, she went to bed.

14. Elizabeth had already reached home when the rain started.

15. After she had marked the exercises, the teacher gave them back to the students.

16. He sent the money two months after we had sold him the car.

17. She began to feel better after she had gone to the doctor´s.

18. The bank robbers had escaped before the police arrived.

19. After it had rained every day for a week, we decided to go back home.

20. His tooth stopped hurting after he had gone to the dentist.

21. He has scored three goals when he was injured.

22. He had taken some photos, but he didn´t put any film in his camera.

23. When I got home, I found I had left the bathroom taps on.

24. My parents tried to do something but the fire had already got out of control.

25. When they arrived they switched on the television.

B. Pasado simple – pasado perfecto

1. We .................... (catch) the train. We got to the station at 12:30 and the train .................... (leave) at 12:35.

2. We .................... (miss) the train. We got to the station at 12:30 and the train .................... (leave) at 12:25.

3. I .................... (go) there before, so .................... (know) the way.

4. When the police .................... (arrive) at the place of the accident, they .................... (stop) all the traffic.

5. .................... (your friends, already, leave) by the time you got there?

6. I was locking the door when I .................... (notice) somebody .................... (open).

7. She .................... (never, fly) before her trip to Haiti.

8. The volunteers .................... (spend) all day sorting out the old clothes they .................... (collect).

9. I .................... (go) to the classroom and .................... (sit) down.

10. The demonstrators .................... (run away) by the time the police .................... (arrive).

11. .................... (you, know) each other a long time before you .................... (get) married.

12. When we finally .................... (arrive), we .................... (have) a meal.

13. He .................... (play) very well, even though he .................... (not, play) for two years.

14. Which voluntary organizations .................... (you, work) for before you joined the Red Cross?

15.When they .................... (find) him he .................... (not, eat) for three days.

16. He .................... (drive) quite well, but he .................... (not, have) enough lessons to pass his test.

17. There was a famine because it .................... (not, rain) in that area for over two years.

18. I .................... (reach) home before the rains started.

19. When I arrived at the cinema, the film .................... (start).

20. My parents .................... (hear) the news before I ....................(phone).

21. When the journalists .................... (arrive) at the village, everybody .................... (leave) and the village was deserted.

22. .................... (the patient, already, die) by the time the doctor got to her.

23. When he retired, he .................... (be) a doctor for thirty years.

24. When I joined the club, I .................... (not, play) golf since I was a child.

25. By the time Mozart .................... (be) twelve, he ....................(compose) a symphony.

Las respuestas correctas

1. We caught the train. We got to the station at 12:30 and the train left at 12:35.

2. We missed the train. We got to the station at 12:30 and the train had left at 12:25.

3. I had gone there before, so I knew the way.

4. When the police arrived at the place of the accident, they stopped all the traffic.

5. Had your friends already left by the time you got there?

6. I was locking the door when I noticed somebody had opened.

7. She had never flown before her trip to Haiti.

8. The volunteers spent all day sorting out the old clothes they had collected.

9. I went to the classroom and sat down.

10. The demonstrators had run away by the time the police arrived.

11. Had you known each other a long time before you got married.

12. When we finally arrived, we had a meal.

13. He played very well, even though he had not played for two years.

14. Which voluntary organizations had you worked for before you joined the Red Cross?

15. When they found him he had not eaten for three days.

16. He drove quite well, but he had not had enough lessons to pass his test.

17. There was a famine because it had not rained in that area for over two years.

18. I had reached home before the rains started.

19. When I arrived at the cinema, the film had started.

20. My parents had heard the news before I phoned.

21. When the journalists arrived at the village, everybody had left and the village was deserted.

22. The patient had already died by the time the doctor got to her.

23. When he retired, he had been a doctor for thirty years.

24. When I joined the club, I had not played golf since I was a child.

25. By the time Mozart was twelve, he had composed a symphony.

C. Pasado simple – pasado perfecto

1. Her plane .................... (already, leave) when Silvia .................... (arrive)at the airport.

2. The patient .................... (die) when the doctor .................... (arrive).

3. Ana .................... (to be) excited because she .................... (never, be) to a Disco before.

4. I .................... (call) you this morning but you .................... (already, go) to work.

5. He .................... (fail) the exam .................... (he, study) at all?

6. By seven o´clock she .................... (finish) her housework.

7. Belinda .................... (call) me at two, but I .................... (leave) by then.

8. When he .................... (leave), I .................... (begin) to cry).

9. When he .................... (come) home, Sue .................... (already, cook)dinner.

10. We could not sent you a letter, because we .................... (forget) our address book.

11. I .................... (loose) the key that he .................... (give) to me.

12. The waitress .................... (serve) something we .................... (not, order).

13. .................... (you, finish) your homework before you went to the cinema?

14. .................... (you, have) breakfast before you came here?

15. I .................... (be) surprised when I met her. I .................... (not, meet)anyone like her before.

16. Caroline .................... (prepare) dinner when her husband ....................(get) home.

17. She .................... (tell) me that she .................... (see) a ghost.

18. When Oliver .................... (phone), the kids .................... (just, go) to bed.

19. If I .................... (know) the answer I would have passed the test.

20. She .................... (study), that´s why she .................... (pass) with such good result.

21. I .................... (go) downstairs because I .................... (hear) a noise.

22. .................... (she, find) a place to stay when she went to Boston?

23. They .................... (spend) their honeymoon in Amsterdam where they .................... (meet) two years before.

24. She .................... (put) on the dress, which she .................... (not, wear)for ages.

25. When he .................... (arrive) I .................... (already, clean) the house.

Las respuestas correctas

1. Her plane had already left when Silvia arrived at the airport.

2. The patient had died when the doctor arrived.

3. Ana was excited because she had never been to a Disco before.

4. I called you this morning but you had already gone to work.

5. He failed the exam had he studied at all?

6. By seven o´clock she had finished her housework.

7. Belinda called me at two, but I left by then.

8. When he left, I began to cry.

9. When he came home, Sue had already cooked dinner.

10. We could not sent you a letter, because we had forgotten our address book.

11. I lost the key that he had given to me.

12. The waitress served something we had not ordered.

13. Had you finished your homework before you went to the cinema?

14. Had you had breakfast before you came here?

15. I was surprised when I met her. I had not met anyone like her before.

16. Caroline had prepared dinner when her husband got home.

17. She told me that she had seen a ghost.

18. When Oliver phoned, the kids had just, gone to bed.

19. If I knew the answer I would have passed the test.

20. She had studied, that´s why she passed with such good result.

21. I went downstairs because I had heard a noise.

22. Had she found a place to stay when she went to Boston?

23. They spent their honeymoon in Amsterdam where they had met two years before.

24. She put on the dress, which she had not worn for ages.

25. When he arrived I had already cleaned the house.

D. Pasado simple – pasado perfecto

1. When Alice had done the shopping, she .................... (pick) her children up from school.

2. I .................... (not touch) an bat before that day.

3. What .................... (you, say) before you opened the window.

4. Irene .................... (not work) before she began the job.

5. By the time the babysitter arrived, the children .................... (go) to bed.

6. .................... (the fisherman, catch) any fish when the rain began?

7. His mother .................... (be) angry because he ....................(not help) her with the shopping.

8. I .................... (look) at the photo´s he .................... (send).

9. Eladia won the match although she .................... (not, play) tennis before.

10. .................... (he, speak) to you before he called us?

11. After I .................... (make) all the necessary changes to the article I .................... (send) it to the publisher.

12. I was not afraid although I .................... (not, be) horse riding before.

13. He .................... (show) us the place where he .................... (hurt) his leg.

14. He .................... (be) tired because he .................... (work) all night.

15. Yesterday I .................... (read) an interesting book which my sister .................... (recommend) to me.

16. .................... (you, switch) off the cooker before we left?

17. When I .................... (spend) a year travelling I .................... (already,complete) my degree at the University of Amsterdam.

18. I .................... (eat) a large breakfast so I .................... (have) a small lunch.

19. After Gemma .................... (do) the shopping, she started cooking supper.

20. When I left the house, I ....................(not, have) breakfast yet.

21. Harold .................... (not, finish) his homework before he ....................(go) to the party.

22. I .................... (study) a lot the day before I took my English exam.

23. .................... (you, take) the laundry in when it started to rain?

24. Frank .................... (crash) into a bus because he .................... (not, notice) the red traffic light.

25. After I .................... (speak) to the doctor I felt much better.

Las respuestas correctas

1. When Alice had done the shopping, she picked her children up from school.

2. I had not touched an bat before that day.

3. What had you said before you opened the window.

4. Irene had not worked before she began the job.

5. By the time the babysitter arrived, the children had gone to bed.

6. Had the fisherman caught any fish when the rain began?

7. His mother was angry because he had not helped her with the shopping.

8. I looked at the photo´s he had sent.

9. Eladia won the match although she had not played tennis before.

10. Had he spoken to you before he called us?

11. After I had made all the necessary changes to the article I sent it to the publisher.

12. I was not afraid although I had not been horse riding before.

13. He showed us the place where he had hurt his leg.

14. He was tired because he had worked all night.

15. Yesterday I read an interesting book which my sister had recommended to me.

16. Had you switched off the cooker before we left?

17. When I spent a year travelling I had already completed my degree at the University of Amsterdam.

18. I had eaten a large breakfast so I had a small lunch.

19. After Gemma had done the shopping, she started cooking supper.

20. When I left the house, I had not had breakfast yet.

21. Harold had not finished his homework before he went to the party.

22. I had studied a lot the day before I took my English exam.

23. Had you taken the laundry in when it started to rain?

24. Frank crashed into a bus because he had not noticed the red traffic light.

25. After I had spoken to the doctor I felt much better.

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