Verbos Frasales

Literal and idiomatic phrasal verbs

Los phrasal verbs están formados por un verbo y una partícula. La partícula puede ser una preposición o un adverbio, como por ejemplo, in , out, on, off, for, over.

El significado de algunos phrasal verbs es literal. Si sabemos lo que significan el verbo y la partícula, podemos descifrar el significado del phrasal verb.

The teacher told the students to sit down.

La profesora pidió a los alumnos que se sentaran.

Algunos phrasal verbs tienen un significado idiomático. El verbo y la particulá no nos ayudan a entender lo que significa el phrasal verb. Tenemos que aprender su significado tratándolo como una palabra nueva.

He´s looking for a job.

Está buscando trabajo.

A veces los phrasal verbs tienen un significado literal y otro idomático.

Look up there! Is that an airplane?

Mira allí arriba. ¿Es un avión?(significado literal)

I looked up her number in the telephone directory.

Busqué su número en la guía de teléfonos.(significado idiomático)

Fijate en los phrasal verbs en negrita. ¿Su significado es literal o idiomático?

1. Put down your pens and stop writing.

2. I had just got on the train when the doors closed.

3. I give up! What´s the answer?

4. Can you see through that window?

5. My grandma has taken up salsa dancing.

6. Mike´s on holiday, but he´s coming back tomorrow.

Phrasal verbs with up and down

Algunas partículas nos pueden ayudar a descifrar lo que significa un phrasal verb. Los phrasal verbs que contienen las partículas up y down suelen indicar que algo está en proceso, o que se produce un aumento o una diminución de algo.

It will warm up!

Hará más calor.

It will cool down.

Hará más frío.

La particular up también puede indicar que se complete o se termina una acción.

Eat up!

¡Cómetelo todo!

You´ve used up the milk!

¡Te has terminado la leche!

The rain has cleared up.

Ha parado de llover.

Completa las frases con up and down.

1. The bus company has put … its prices, due to the rising cost of petrol.

2. Can you speak … ? I can´t hear you.

3. Slow … ! You´re going too fast!

4. Cheer … ! Things aren´t that bad.

5. He´s very stressed. He really needs to calm …. .

6. I´ll tidy … the kitchen.

Separable and inseparable phrasal verbs

Los phrasal verbs se dividen en tres grupos: separable (separable) e instransitive (instransitivos).

1. Separable

Estos phrasal verbs son transitivos (es decir, llevan objeto directo). Cuando el objeto es un sustantivo, este puede colocarse delante o detrás de la partícula.

We´ll pick more guests up. O We´ll pick up more guests.

Recogeremos a más invitados.

Cuando el objeto es un pronombre, este debe colocarse delante de la partícula.

We´ll pick them up. No puedes decir: We´ll pick up them.

Los recogeremos.

2. Inseparable

Estos phrasal verbs también son transitivos, pero, en este caso, si el objeto es un sustantivo, siempre debe colocarse detrás de la partícula.

He´s looking for a job. No puedes decir: He´s looking a job for.

Está buscando trabajo.

Cuando el complemento es un pronombre también debe colocarse detrás de la partícula.

He´s looking for it. No se puede decir: He´s looking it for.

Lo está buscando.

Los phrasal verbs con dos partículas siempre son inseperables.

I get on with my sister. No se dice: I get my sister on with.

Me llevo bien con mi hermana.

3. Instransitive

Los phrasal verbs instantivos no llevan objeto directo, de forma que no se separa nunca el verbo de la partícula.

We´re going away this weekend.

Nos vamos de viaje este fin de semana.

Phrasal verbs with more than one meaning

Muchos phrasal verbs tienen más de un significado y pueden variar sus caracteristicas gramaticales según el significado.

Please turn the radio / heating / air conditioning up. (transitive / separable)

Por favor; sube la radio / la calefacción / el aire acondicionado.

The police turned up five minutes later (intransitive)

La policía apareció cinco minutes más tarde.

Cuando busques un nuevo phrasal verb en el diccionario, recuerde que, además de mirar el significado, debes fijarte en la estructura gramatical del verbo para poder utilizarlo correctamente.

¿Cuántos significados tienen estos phrasal verbs? Utiliza un diccionario. Para cada significado, comprueba si en phrasal verb es separable, inseparable o intransitivo.

1. hold up

2. come across

3. take off

4. make up

5. pick up

6. get through

Completa cada frase con un phrasal verb adecuado del ejercicio anterior.

1. She´s got a great CV, but she doesn´t ... well in interviews.

2. My mom used to …. stories …. for us when we were young.

3. I thought the exams would last for ever, but I … them.

4. She …. her glasses … and cleaned them.

5. She … the dog … and put it in its basket.

6. The traffic … us … and we arrived ten minutes late.

Phrasal verbs in contemporary language

Todos los phrasal verbs son bastante informales. No solemos emplearlos en escritos muy formales. Algunos phrasal verbs solo se utilizan en contextos muy coloquiales.

Stop worrying and chill out! ¡Deja de preocuparte y relájate!

Constatemente están apareciendo nuevos phrasal verbs para expresar conceptos actuales o advances tecnológicos.Desde el momento que estoy publicando esto, se habrán inventado unos cuantos phrasal verbs nuevos.

.

1. The DJ bigged up (recommend enthusiastically)the band´s new album.

2. My mum is going to freak out (get very angry or excited) when she sees my new haircut.

3. When I email Anna, I´ll copy you in (send a copy of an email that you have written for someone else).

4. Anna hangs out (spend time with) with Caroline and Gemma a lot.

5. I´ve forgotten my password so I can´t log in (access a computer system or website).

6. I crashed out (fall asleep immediately because you are really tired) on the sofa as soon as I got home.

Ejercicios

A. Complete the sentences with a particle and the correct forms of the verbs in the list: up, up, up, over, down, clear, brighten, warm, cloud, cool.

1) I hope the rain …………. …………. soon so that we can play tennis.

2) In early spring, it´s hot at midday but the temperature …………. …………. in the evenings.

3) The skies were clear this morning but it has …………. …………. this afternoon.

4) It …………. …………. so much that I had to put on my sunglasses.

5) I don´t think you´ll need a jacket. It´ll …………. …………. this afternoon.

A. Las respuestas correctas

1) I hope the rain clears over soon so that we can play tennis.

2) In early spring, it´s hot at midday but the temperature cools down in the evenings.

3) The skies were clear this morning but it has clouded up this afternoon.

4) It brightens up so much that I had to put on my sunglasses.

5) I don´t think you´ll need a jacket. It´ll warm up this afternoon.

B. Complete the texts with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs: fit in, grow up, go on, build up

1) I´d like to go to university next year to study journalism. I want to …………………. and become a journalist.

2) University will be different from school, but I´m sure I´ll …………………. as I´m very sociable person.

3) In my chosen profession, I may have to live abroad for a while, which will make me …………………. and become more responsible.

4) No doubt I´ll also …………………. lots of contacts, which will be useful for my articles.

B. Las respuestas correctas

1) I´d like to go to university next year to study journalism. I want to go on and become a journalist.

2) University will be different from school, but I´m sure I´ll fit in as I´m very sociable person.

3) In my chosen profession, I may have to live abroad for a while, which will make me grow up and become more responsible.

4) No doubt I´ll also build up lots of contacts, which will be useful for my articles.

C. Complete the texts with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs: set off, stop off, drop off, go away, pick up.

1) Last week I …………………. to Barcelona for a few days to visit my family there.

2) We …………………. early in the morning because our flight was at 9 am.

3) A taxi …………………. us …………… at my house at 6.30 am. and …………………. us …………………. at the airport just before 7 am.

4) Unfortunately, it wasn´t a direct flight. We …………………. in Granada and didn´t get to Barcelona until 1 pm.

C. Las respuestas correctas

1) Last week I went away to Barcelona for a few days to visit my family there.

2) We set off early in the morning because our flight was at 9 am.

3) A taxi picked us up at my house at 6.30 am. and dropped us off at the airport just before 7 am.

4) Unfortunately, it wasn´t a direct flight. We stopped off in Granada and didn´t get to Barcelona until 1 pm.

D. Complete the sentence with the correct form of a verb and particle: come, go, look, turn, across, into, over, up.

1) Max …………………. late for class again today.

2) I haven´t booked a flight yet. I´m going to …………………. it this afternoon.

3) If you …………………. your work carefully, you usually find a couple of mistakes.

4) I was in a bookshop yesterday and I …………………. that book that you recommended.

D. Las respuestas correctas

1) Max turned up late for class again today. 2) I haven´t booked a flight yet. I´m going to look into it this afternoon. 3) If you go over your work carefully, you usually find a couple of mistakes. 4) I was in a bookshop yesterday and I came across that book that you recommended.

E. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb and particle: break, break, get, hack, away with, into, into, out.

1) He …………………. of prison but was immediately captured by police.

2) A teenager who …………………. the Pentagon security system has received a lucrative job offer.

3) Thieves …………………. the mansion and stole a painting by Mondriaan.

4) It was a serious crime, but they …………………. …………………. light sentences because they were under 18.

E. Las respuestas correctas

1) He broke out of prison but was immediately captured by police. 2) A teenager who hacked into the Pentagon security system has received a lucrative job offer. 3) Thieves broke into the mansion and stole a painting by Mondriaan. 4) It was a serious crime, but they got away with light sentences because they were under 18.

F. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb and particle: be, chill, plug, turn, in, in, into, out, up.

1) I´m trying to …………………. to that new radio station.

2) What sort of music …………………. you …………………. ?

3) Just …………………. your mobile here at recharge it.

4) Can you …………………. the volume? I can´t hear.

5) Stop getting so excited! Relax and …………………. !

F. Las respuestas correctas

1) I´m trying to tune in to that new radio station.

2) What sort of music are you into?

3) Just plug in your mobile here at recharge it.

4) Can you turn up the volume? I can´t hear.

5) Stop getting so excited! Relax and chill out!

G. Complete the sentences with the verbs in the list: get off, get on, put on, take off, turn on, turn of.

1) It´s a long journey. We …………………. the train in Málaga and we …………………. in Rome.

2) You´re wet. You should ………………….that jacket and …………………. some dry clothes.

3) The film´s starting! Can you …………………. the TV? And …………………. the CD player, please?

G. Las respuestas correctas

1) It´s a long journey. We get on the train in Málaga and we get off in Rome.

2) You´re wet. You should take off that jacket and put on some dry clothes.

3) The film´s starting! Can you turn on the TV? And turn off the CD player, please?

H. Match the phrasal verb with its definition.

1) to set off

2) to leave behind

3) to come across

4) to go on

5) to get back

6) to see off

a) to find something unexpectedly

b) to say goodbye to someone at the start of their journey

c) to return (to the point of departure)

d) not to take something

e) to continue

f) to start a journey

H. Las respuestas correctas

1) to set off f) to start a journey

2) to leave behind d) not to take something

3) to come across a) to find something unexpectedly

4) to go on e) to continue

5) to get back c) to return (to the point of departure)

6) to see off b) to say goodbye to someone at the start of their journey

I. Match the phrasal verb with its definition

1) to break up

2) to shut down

3) to wipe out

4) to clean up

5) to look after

6) to run out of

a) completely destroy

b) care for

c) break into pieces

d) use completely

e) take away waste from

f) close a business permanently

I. Las respuestas correctas

1) to break up c) break into pieces

2) to shut down f) close a business permanently

3) to wipe out a) completely destroy

4) to clean up e) take away waste from

5) to look after b) care for

6) to run out of d) use completely

J. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs: bring together, stand for, take place, try on, try out.

1) The Fringe Festival …………………. in Edinburgh, in August every year.

2) The Festival …………………. people from all over the world.

3) Children can …………………. lots of new activities, like playing the drums or doing circus tricks at the workshops.

4) Tickets can be bought online or at the shops of HMV. HMV …………………. this Master´s Voice.

5) Visitors can …………………. traditional Scottish clothes in some shops.

J. Las respuestas correctas

1) The Fringe Festival takes place in Edinburgh, in August every year.

2) The Festival brings together people from all over the world.

3) Children can try out lots of new activities, like playing the drums or doing circus tricks at the workshops.

4) Tickets can be bought online or at the shops of HMV. HMV stands for this Master´s Voice.

5) Visitors can try on traditional Scottish clothes in some shops.

K. Complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs: carry out, draw up, log on, throw away, turn on, turn up.

Our mum and dad have lots of rules at home ….

1) Our parents …………………. a new contract for us at the start of every school year.

2) We usually …………………. some of the things on the contract, but not all of them.

3) Sometimes we …………………. to the computer when we should be studying.

4) We never …………………. the volume of radio because we don´t want them to know we´re listening to it.

5) We only …………………. the TV after eight o´clock.

6) We destroy the contract and …………………. it …………………. when the school year finishes.

K. Las respuestas correctas

1) Our parents draw up a new contract for us at the start of every school year.

2) We usually carry out some of the things on the contract, but not all of them.

3) Sometimes we log on to the computer when we should be studying.

4) We never turn up the volume of radio because we don´t want them to know we´re listening to it.

5) We only turn on the TV after eight o´clock.

6) We destroy the contract and throw it away when the school year finishes.

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